Compositional analysis of dark colored particulates homogeneously emitted with combustion gases (dark plumes) from brick making kilns situated in the area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

  • Iatizaz Hassan Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar 25120 Pakistan
  • Naseer Ahmed Khan Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar 25120 Pakistan
  • Naveed Ul Hasan Syed Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar 25120 Pakistan
  • Najma Memom National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 Pakistan
  • Muddasar Habib Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar 25120 Pakistan
  • Khalid Mehmood Barki Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar 25120 Pakistan

Abstract

In Pakistan raw coal and a little quantity of waste plastics are burnt to sustain high temperature inside brick making kilns. The gaseous emissions of the kilns contain a considerable amount of darkish colored particulates. It is currently believed that the plastic burning produces these particulates. Advanced characterization instruments, such as a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometer, surface area analyzer using nitrogen gas adsorption isotherms, and thermogravimetric analyzer, were used to find out the chemistry and physics of the particulates. At a magnification of 30,000x, the SEM picture shows masses that are roughly roundish in shape and their size is in between 0.1 to 0.5 microns. The elements detected in these particles are carbon, oxygen, and sulfur (EDS analysis), or in other words, these elements are a typical composition of raw coal. This elemental analysis suggest that fine coal particles come out with usual combustion gases and these emitted particulates are not plastic combustion product. To strengthen this finding, the sample when calcined discarded a significant amount of sulphur oxides species, as determined in the XRF study by noticing a considerable decrease of sulphur content in the calcined particles, suggesting that the particles are actually a coal. The N2 isotherm graph reveals that the light weight flying coal particles has a very low surface area. Additionally, the XRD and TGA studies supports the conclusion that these dark colored particulate emissions are primarily fine coal particles (cenosphere).

Published
Jan 1, 2024
How to Cite
HASSAN, Iatizaz et al. Compositional analysis of dark colored particulates homogeneously emitted with combustion gases (dark plumes) from brick making kilns situated in the area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, [S.l.], v. 43, n. 1, p. 206-212, jan. 2024. ISSN 2413-7219. Available at: <https://publications.muet.edu.pk/index.php/muetrj/article/view/2712>. Date accessed: 27 feb. 2024. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.22581/muet1982.2401.2712.
This is an open Access Article published by Mehran University of Engineering and Technolgy, Jamshoro under CCBY 4.0 International License