Effect of adjusting orientation for solar energy applications in multiple climatic zones
South-facing collectors are the optimum choice for solar applications in the northern hemisphere. However, obstacles may limit the feasibility of this orientation. Therefore, altering the orientation of the collector impacts solar insolation. In this study, the Perez model is utilized to evaluate incoming solar radiation on tilted surfaces for solar collectors in four climatic zones across Pakistan. The results are presented in contour plots to analyze the optimal tilt and orientation for solar applications. The findings of the study indicate substantial energy gains when collectors are placed at optimum angles. More specifically, Quetta leads with a 14.54% increase, followed by Karachi and Multan at 9.81% and 9.3%, respectively, compared to horizontally placed collectors. Analysis of vertical surfaces reveals a notable decrease in monthly solar radiation, especially in Peshawar (37.22%). Monthly adjustments in tilt angles outperform fixed positions, enhancing solar energy intensity. When comparing yearly adjustments with monthly adjustments, Quetta shows the maximum increase of 5.92%, followed by Karachi (4.86%), Multan (4.01%), and Peshawar (3.65%). It is also observed that ±15° azimuth angle change from the south ensures receiving up to 98% of insolation, regardless of the climatic region. Lastly, the validation against the NASA SSE database further highlights the reliability of our simulation model. Overall, the outcomes of the study will contribute to informed solar energy planning in the studied regions.