A Secure Digital Text Watermarking Algorithm for Portable Document Format (PDF)

  • Umair Khadim Department of Software Engineering, University of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir 11100, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Munwar Iqbal Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila 47050, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Awais Azam Department of Computer Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan,


Nowadays, with the rapid development of advanced technologies, an illegal copy of digital documents can be easily generated. The Portable Document Format is the most common and widely used text document on the internet. The copyright protection of these documents is a challenging task. Advanced techniques have been proposed in the past but have not delivered the expected results. These techniques are either robust or imperceptible or have a high capacity, but do not maintain the balance between all parameters. Digital watermarking has been used over the past decade to detect forgery and tampering detection, maintain copyright and authentication. This study proposes a novel approach for Portable Document Format based on document page objects. The Special objects of Portable Document Format are used for watermarking without affecting the content of the original document. The proposed technique preserves the imperceptibility and resists against formatting attacks. The watermark information is extracted with high probability, the proposed technique is robust, secured, imperceptible, and embeds 0.22 KB of the watermark in the host document.

Jan 1, 2022
How to Cite
KHADIM, Umair; IQBAL, Muhammad Munwar; AZAM, Muhammad Awais. A Secure Digital Text Watermarking Algorithm for Portable Document Format (PDF). Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, [S.l.], v. 41, n. 1, p. 100-110, jan. 2022. ISSN 2413-7219. Available at: <https://publications.muet.edu.pk/index.php/muetrj/article/view/2358>. Date accessed: 18 jan. 2022.
This is an open Access Article published by Mehran University of Engineering and Technolgy, Jamshoro under CCBY 4.0 International License