Perspective of Bioenergy in Pakistan for Sustainable Eco-Friendly Energy Substitute: A Review
Pakistan has remained an energy deficient country for the last few decades. The supply of electricity decreased in 2002-2007 against the exponentially increasing demand in Pakistan. In the meantime, severe load shedding was started across Pakistan that negatively affected the economic growth of the country. More than 63% of the population in rural areas live without electricity. The government cut down electricity supply eight to twelve hours per day in terms of load shedding that adversely affects the living standards and economic growth of the nation. In the world, Pakistan stands on 133 regarding ranking in energy consumption. Energy usage per capita in Pakistan is 482 kilograms of oil equivalent per year (kgoe/a) which is very low when compared with the industrialized countries. Besides that Pakistan strongly adheres with non-renewable energy options to mollify its energy demand. The import of fossil fuels to meet energy demand adversely affects the economy of Pakistan. This review helps in the identification of indigenous available biomass resources and their conversion processes for power production to improve power generation, living standards and economy of the country. The application of indigenous biomass resources for electricity generation will reduce the pressure caused by increased demand for energy.