A Residual Analysis for the Removal of Biological Oxygen Demand through Rotating Biological Contactor
Regression is a statistical method that is generally used for forecasting and prediction. It helps us to estimate the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. This is the most widely used technique that best approximates the individual data points. It has found numerous successful applications in Engineering, Science, business and other fields. Getting average removal % of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) from greywater through Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), following experiment was conducted in Sindh University hostels using different parameters such as Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) i.e. 2 hours (0.42 liter per min), 2.5 hours (0.33 l/min) and 3 hours (0.28 l/min) and multiple number of discs i.e. 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50 and 52. Consequences reveal that linear estimate of HRTs and numbers of disc are considerable whereas linear and quadratic estimates of number of discs are highly significant, which evidence the significance of time and discs. However, as p-value is greater than 0.05, hence quadratic estimate of HRT is not significant. By using coefficients of the table the regression equation is Removal = - 79.995 + 6.88 time + 2.90 disc, where the sample standard deviation is 7.151, coefficient of correlation is 0.86 and coefficient of determination is 0.742. Distributions of errors are approximately normal as probability plot of the residuals is approximately linear. Residual analysis shows that against each predicted variable, residuals plot falls approximately in a horizontal band symmetric and centered about the horizontal axis and against predicted y-values. Moreover, Residual plot shows the constant standard deviations and linearity assumptions appear to be met.