An Intelligent Three-Level Digital Watermarking Method for Document Protection

  • Umair Khadim Department of Software Engineering, University of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Munwar Iqbal Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Awais Azam Department of Computer Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan.


Digital text is the most frequent interchange form of data that could hold sensitive information such as audit firms, banks, and educational institutes. This sensitive information needs to preserve its integrity and originality so that it could not only secure the data but also helps to identify ownership of text documents. This paper presents a novel and invisible digital watermarking approach for the secure exchange of text documents over the internet. Digital watermarking serves from the last decade for detection of forgery and tempering from digital text documents and maintained the copyright and authentication successfully. Many states of the art watermark techniques achieve high imperceptibility, robustness, and high hidden capacity; unfortunately failed to maintain the balance among these three conflicting parameters. As resolvent, we propose an intelligent Three-Level Digital Watermarking (3LDW) system for text documents copyright protection. 3LDW system can be applied to Microsoft Word objects, document open spaces, and text feature coding without affecting the content of the original document. Experimental results reveal that our proposed 3LDW system strongly resist against formatting attacks and efficiently preserves the imperceptibility. Additionally, embedding capacity analysis demonstrates a prominent improvement of the proposed system as compared to other similar approaches.

Apr 1, 2021
How to Cite
KHADIM, Umair; IQBAL, Muhammad Munwar; AZAM, Muhammad Awais. An Intelligent Three-Level Digital Watermarking Method for Document Protection. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, [S.l.], v. 40, n. 2, p. 323 - 334, apr. 2021. ISSN 2413-7219. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 18 sep. 2021. doi:
This is an open Access Article published by Mehran University of Engineering and Technolgy, Jamshoro under CCBY 4.0 International License