Determination of Arsenic and Health Risk Assessment in the Ground Water of Sindh, Pakistan
As (Arsenic) is one of the lethal element present at the various locations of the world, putting human beings in danger by polluting the water. Arsenic Kit and atomic absorption spectrometer were used to determine As in ground water of Sindh province, Pakistan. Twenty-Four (24) districts both on the left and right bank of RI (River Indus) were analyzed. It was observed from the results that highest As concentration
200 ppb (parts per billion) i.e. above the WHO (World Health Organization) limit (10 ppb) was observed in Sakrand, district Shaheed Benazirabad followed by Hala, Matairi, TMK (Tando Mohammad Khan) and Nasarpur regions. It was further found that ground water of regions on the left bank of RIwas more contaminated than the right bank. Contour map was created using OriginPro and coordinate systems to highlight the elevated arsenic in the studied area. HRA (Health Risk Assessment) of these areas was carried out to calculate EDI (Estimated Daily Intake), TQH (Target Hazard Quotient) and CR (Cancer Risk). 45% of the total ground water samples analyzed were above the permissible limit for As in water and mostly these are located on the left bank of RI. The local wells in Sindh have never been tested for metal concentration former to use. These results provide baselines for researchers, NGO’s (Non-Governmental Organizations) and government to apply
arsenic treatment technologies in those areas.