A Comprehensive Literature Review of Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass for Syngas Production and Associated Challenge
The interest in the thermochemical conversion of biomass for producer gas production since last decade has increased because of the growing attention to the application of sustainable energy resources. Application of biomass resources is a valid alternative to fossil fuels as it is a renewable energy source. The valuable gaseous product obtained through thermochemical conversion of organic material is syngas, whereas the solid product obtained is char. This review deals with the state of the art of biomass gasification technologies and the quality of syngas gathered through the application of different gasifiers along with the effect of different operating parameters on the quality of producer gas. Main steps in gasification process including drying, oxidation, pyrolysis and reduction effects on syngas production and quality are presented in this review. An overview of various types of gasifiers used in lignocellulosic biomass gasification processes, fixed bed and fluidized bed and entrained flow gasifiers are discussed. The effects of various process parameters such as particle size, steam and biomass ratio, equivalence ratio, effects of temperature, pressure and gasifying agents are discussed. Depending on the priorities of several researchers, the optimum value of different anticipated productivities in the gasification process comprising better quality syngas production improved lower heating value, higher syngas production, improved cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency, production of char and tar have been reviewed.