Controller Design for the Rotational Dynamics of a Quadcopter
Researchers have shown their interests in establishing miniature flying robots to be utilized for, both, commercial and research applications. This is due to that fact that there appears to be a huge advancement in miniature actuators and sensors which depend on the MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) NEMS (Nano-Electro Mechanical Systems). This research underlines a detailed mathematical model and controller design for a quadcopter. The nonlinear dynamic model of the quadcopter is derived from the Newton-Euler method and Euler Lagrange method. The motion of a quadcopter can be classified into two subsystems: a rotational subsystem (attitude and heading) and translational subsystem (altitude and x and y motion). The rotational system is fully actuated whereas translational subsystem is under actuated. However, a quadcopter is 6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) under actuated system. The controller design of a quadcopter is difficult due to its complex and highly nonlinear mathematical model where the state variables are strongly coupled and contain under actuated property. Nonlinear controller such as SMC (Sliding Mode Controller) is used to control altitude, yaw, pitch, and roll angles.Simulation results show that the robustness of the SMC design gives a better way to design a controller with autonomous stability flight with good tracking performance and improved accuracy without any chattering effect. The system states are following the desired trajectory as expected.