A Novel Zero-Watermarking Based Scheme for Copyright Protection of Grayscale Images
Zero-watermarking of digital images is a powerful method with respect to transparency in the watermarked image. However, robustness is still a challenging characteristic for researchers. The proposed method of zero-watermarking provides a novel solution for increasing robustness by obtaining resident features of grayscale image that are robust against common signal processing operations. The proposed solution is based on image scanning to produce NDD (NeighboringDistance Difference) profile. This scheme is used to extract image features for generating redundancy binary profile with the help of image scanning and identification of robust image areas for embedding a binary watermark. Redundant areas from binary profile show perceptually insignificant regions of grayscale image according to human visual system. Resident features from robust areas of image are collected to generate the zerowatermarking binary key image using reversible XOR operation. The binary key is used for extraction of binary watermark. Experimental results of the proposed method have been compared with the results of various zero-watermarking schemes as well as traditional watermarking methods and found much better at slightly higher computational cost. The comparison analysis for testing robustness has been carried out against image processing attacks like Gaussian filtering, block average filtering, motion blur filtering, image resizing, image rotation, image compression and cropping. For each attack maximum correlated watermark from the set of recovered watermarks is selected to evaluate the performance of proposed zero-watermarking scheme. It has been recorded that perfect matching is observed between original and extracted watermarks for a number of signal processing attacks.