Article Information
Water Quality Assessment of Effluent Receiving Streams in Pakistan: A Case Study of Ravi River

Keywords: Effluent, Stream Water Quality, River Ravi

Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology

Volume 30 ,  Issue 3

Naeem   Ejaz,Hashim  Nisar  Hashmi,Abdul  Razzaq  Ghumman


In this research various parameters for surface water quality degradation in Pakistan were investigated. Ravi River was selected as a case study to highlight the main issues, concerned with untreated wastewater. This paper represents that the mixing of effluent in huge quantity without any treatment in Ravi is a serious threat to the environment. Surface water quality parameters like, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), DO (Dissolved Oxygen), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), suspended solids, phosphorus, chloride, sodium, total kjeldahls nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, oil & grease and total coliforms were tested on fourteen selected sampling stations for a period of three years. During this assessment, the samples were collected from the field and tested in the laboratory using standard methods. The effluent characteristics of Lahore city were also analyzed from the main city outfall sewers and compared with NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan). Unfortunately selected parameters are at least four times above the allowable standards. This investigation shows that the environmental condition of Ravi is becoming worse day by day and the river is acting almost a wastewater carrier. Increased rate of pollutants in the river may be more dangerous and may create serious threats to groundwater quality and local environment in near future. Water quality and other environmental conditions in this river can only be improved by proper wastewater treatment plant, environmental management and powerful environmental legislation.